Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a deadly hemorrhagic syndrome in humans with mortality rate up to 90%. First reported in Zaire in 1976, EBOV outbreaks showed a fluctuating trend during time and fora long period it was considered a tragic disease confined to the isolated regions of the African continent where the EBOV fear was perpetuated among the poor communities. The extreme severity of the recent 2014–16 EBOV outbreak in terms of fatality rate and rapid spread out of Africa led to the understanding that EBOV is a global health risk and highlights the necessity to find countermeasures against it. In the recent years, several small molecules have been shown to display in vitro and in vivo efficacy against EBOV and some of them have advanced into clinical trials. In addition, also existing drugs have been tested for their anti-EBOV activity and were shown to be promising candidates. However, despite the constant effort addressed to identify anti-EBOV therapeutics, no approved drugs are available against EBOV yet. In this chapter, we describe the main EBOV life cycle steps, providing a detailed picture of the druggable viral and host targets that have been explored so far by different technologies. We then summarize the small molecules, nucleic acid oligomers, and antibody-based therapies reported to have an effect either in in silico, or in biochemical and cell-based assays or in animal models and clinical trials, listing them according to their demonstrated or putative mechanism of action

Antiviral Agents Against Ebola Virus Infection: Repositioning Old Drugs and Finding Novel Small Molecules

Elisa Fanunza
Primo
;
Aldo Frau;Angela Corona
Penultimo
;
Enzo Tramontano
Ultimo
2018-01-01

Abstract

Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a deadly hemorrhagic syndrome in humans with mortality rate up to 90%. First reported in Zaire in 1976, EBOV outbreaks showed a fluctuating trend during time and fora long period it was considered a tragic disease confined to the isolated regions of the African continent where the EBOV fear was perpetuated among the poor communities. The extreme severity of the recent 2014–16 EBOV outbreak in terms of fatality rate and rapid spread out of Africa led to the understanding that EBOV is a global health risk and highlights the necessity to find countermeasures against it. In the recent years, several small molecules have been shown to display in vitro and in vivo efficacy against EBOV and some of them have advanced into clinical trials. In addition, also existing drugs have been tested for their anti-EBOV activity and were shown to be promising candidates. However, despite the constant effort addressed to identify anti-EBOV therapeutics, no approved drugs are available against EBOV yet. In this chapter, we describe the main EBOV life cycle steps, providing a detailed picture of the druggable viral and host targets that have been explored so far by different technologies. We then summarize the small molecules, nucleic acid oligomers, and antibody-based therapies reported to have an effect either in in silico, or in biochemical and cell-based assays or in animal models and clinical trials, listing them according to their demonstrated or putative mechanism of action
Drugs; EBOV; EBOV entry; EBOV RNA polymerase; Host targets;Inhibitors Interferon Small molecules;VP24; VP35
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/251726
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