Hypoxia can impair cognitive performance, whereas exercise can enhance it. The effects of hypoxia on cognitive performance during exercise appear to be moderated by exercise duration and intensity and by severity and duration of hypoxia and cognitive task. In normal individuals, exercise under hypoxia can evoke adverse post-exercise mood states, such as tension and fatigue. However, little is known about the effects of hypoxia during exercise in trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate how hypoxia affected executive functions and mood states, assessed, respectively, during and post-exercise and to explore the role of motivation moderators, such as inhibition and activation systems (BIS-BAS). Two different sessions of exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2 13%), each lasting 18 min, were randomly assigned in a counterbalanced order and administered to seventeen male athletes. During exercise bouts, participants performed a mental task (BST) aimed to produce cognitive interference and suppression. Reaction times and accuracy of responses were recorded. After 5 min, all participants completed two questionnaires assessing mood states (ITAMS) and incidence of symptoms potentially related to hypoxia (AMS-C). The results show that hypoxia impairs cognitive performance in terms of slower reaction times, but a high BAS attenuates this effect. Participants with high BAS show an equivalent cognitive performance under hypoxia and normoxia conditions. No effects were found on mood states. Further research is required to investigate the role of BAS, cognitive abilities, and mood states in prolonged hypoxic conditions.

Executive Functions and Mood States in Athletes Performing Exercise Under Hypoxia

Guicciardi, Marco
;
Pazzona, Riccardo;Manca, Andrea;Monni, Alessandra;Scalas, Laura Francesca;Perra, Federica;Leban, Bruno;Roberto, Silvana;Mulliri, Gabriele;Ghiani, Giovanna;Doneddu, Azzurra;Crisafulli, Antonio
2022

Abstract

Hypoxia can impair cognitive performance, whereas exercise can enhance it. The effects of hypoxia on cognitive performance during exercise appear to be moderated by exercise duration and intensity and by severity and duration of hypoxia and cognitive task. In normal individuals, exercise under hypoxia can evoke adverse post-exercise mood states, such as tension and fatigue. However, little is known about the effects of hypoxia during exercise in trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate how hypoxia affected executive functions and mood states, assessed, respectively, during and post-exercise and to explore the role of motivation moderators, such as inhibition and activation systems (BIS-BAS). Two different sessions of exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2 13%), each lasting 18 min, were randomly assigned in a counterbalanced order and administered to seventeen male athletes. During exercise bouts, participants performed a mental task (BST) aimed to produce cognitive interference and suppression. Reaction times and accuracy of responses were recorded. After 5 min, all participants completed two questionnaires assessing mood states (ITAMS) and incidence of symptoms potentially related to hypoxia (AMS-C). The results show that hypoxia impairs cognitive performance in terms of slower reaction times, but a high BAS attenuates this effect. Participants with high BAS show an equivalent cognitive performance under hypoxia and normoxia conditions. No effects were found on mood states. Further research is required to investigate the role of BAS, cognitive abilities, and mood states in prolonged hypoxic conditions.
Executive functions; Mood states; Exercise; Cerebral oxygenation; Athletes; Inhibition and activation systems
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11584/338192
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