Simple Summary The olfactory bulb can process odour cues through granular cells (GCs) and dendritic spines, changing their synaptic plasticity properties and their morphology. The GCs' dendritic spines density and morphology were analysed in Anguilla anguilla, considering the olfaction as a driver involved in fish orientation and migration. For the head and neck morphology, spines were classified as mushroom, long thin, stubby, and filopodia. Spines' density decreased from juvenile migrants to no-migrant stages and increased in the adult migrants. Spines' density was comparable between glass and silver eels as an adaptation to migration, while at non-migrating phases, spines' density decreased. For its phylogenetic Elopomorph attribution and its complex life cycle, A. anguilla could be recommended as a model species to study the development of dendritic spines in GCs of the olfactory bulb. Considering the role of olfaction in the orientation and migration of A. anguilla, the modification of environmental stimuli (ocean alterations and climate change) could represent contributing factors that threaten this critically endangered species. Olfaction could represent a pivotal process involved in fish orientation and migration. The olfactory bulb can manage olfactive signals at the granular cell (GC) and dendritic spine levels for their synaptic plasticity properties and changing their morphology and structural stability after environmental odour cues. The GCs' dendritic spine density and morphology were analysed across the life stages of the catadromous Anguilla anguilla. According to the head and neck morphology, spines were classified as mushroom (M), long thin (LT), stubby (S), and filopodia (F). Total spines' density decreased from juvenile migrants to no-migrant stages, to increase again in the adult migrant stage. Mean spines' density was comparable between glass and silver eels as an adaptation to migration. At non-migrating phases, spines' density decreased for M and LT, while M, LT, and S density increased in silver eels. A great dendritic spine development was found in the two migratory phases, regressing in trophic phases, but that could be recreated in adults, tracing the migratory memory of the routes travelled in juvenile phases. For its phylogenetic Elopomorph attribution and its complex life cycle, A. anguilla could be recommended as a model species to study the development of dendritic spines in GCs of the olfactory bulb as an index of synaptic plasticity involved in the modulation of olfactory stimuli. If olfaction is involved in the orientation and migration of A. anguilla and if eels possess a memory, these processes could be influenced by the modification of environmental stimuli (ocean alterations and rapid climate change) contributing to threatening this critically endangered species.

Changes in Dendritic Spine Morphology and Density of Granule Cells in the Olfactory Bulb of Anguilla anguilla (L., 1758): A Possible Way to Understand Orientation and Migratory Behavior

Porceddu, Riccardo
Primo
;
Podda, Cinzia
Secondo
;
Mulas, Giovanna;Palmas, Francesco;Picci, Luca;Scano, Claudia;Spiga, Saturnino
Penultimo
;
Sabatini, Andrea
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Simple Summary The olfactory bulb can process odour cues through granular cells (GCs) and dendritic spines, changing their synaptic plasticity properties and their morphology. The GCs' dendritic spines density and morphology were analysed in Anguilla anguilla, considering the olfaction as a driver involved in fish orientation and migration. For the head and neck morphology, spines were classified as mushroom, long thin, stubby, and filopodia. Spines' density decreased from juvenile migrants to no-migrant stages and increased in the adult migrants. Spines' density was comparable between glass and silver eels as an adaptation to migration, while at non-migrating phases, spines' density decreased. For its phylogenetic Elopomorph attribution and its complex life cycle, A. anguilla could be recommended as a model species to study the development of dendritic spines in GCs of the olfactory bulb. Considering the role of olfaction in the orientation and migration of A. anguilla, the modification of environmental stimuli (ocean alterations and climate change) could represent contributing factors that threaten this critically endangered species. Olfaction could represent a pivotal process involved in fish orientation and migration. The olfactory bulb can manage olfactive signals at the granular cell (GC) and dendritic spine levels for their synaptic plasticity properties and changing their morphology and structural stability after environmental odour cues. The GCs' dendritic spine density and morphology were analysed across the life stages of the catadromous Anguilla anguilla. According to the head and neck morphology, spines were classified as mushroom (M), long thin (LT), stubby (S), and filopodia (F). Total spines' density decreased from juvenile migrants to no-migrant stages, to increase again in the adult migrant stage. Mean spines' density was comparable between glass and silver eels as an adaptation to migration. At non-migrating phases, spines' density decreased for M and LT, while M, LT, and S density increased in silver eels. A great dendritic spine development was found in the two migratory phases, regressing in trophic phases, but that could be recreated in adults, tracing the migratory memory of the routes travelled in juvenile phases. For its phylogenetic Elopomorph attribution and its complex life cycle, A. anguilla could be recommended as a model species to study the development of dendritic spines in GCs of the olfactory bulb as an index of synaptic plasticity involved in the modulation of olfactory stimuli. If olfaction is involved in the orientation and migration of A. anguilla and if eels possess a memory, these processes could be influenced by the modification of environmental stimuli (ocean alterations and rapid climate change) contributing to threatening this critically endangered species.
European eel; Catadromous fish olfaction; Dendritic spine development; Migratory behaviour; Olfactory bulb; Olfactory granule cell; Orientation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/345474
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