This study investigates the chemical composition, nutritional, and biological properties of extracts obtained from A. melanocarpa berries using different extraction methods and solvents. Hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 allowed us to isolate fruit essential oil (HDEX) and fixed oil (SFEEX), respectively. A phenol-enriched extract was obtained using a mild ultrasound-assisted maceration with methanol (UAMM). The HDEX most abundant component, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was italicene epoxide (17.2%), followed by hexadecanoic acid (12.4%), khusinol (10.5%), limonene (9.7%), dodecanoic acid (9.7%), and (E)-anethole (6.1%). Linoleic (348.9 mg/g of extract, 70.5%), oleic (88.9 mg/g, 17.9%), and palmitic (40.8 mg/g, 8.2%) acids, followed by α-linolenic and stearic acids, were the main fatty acids in SFEEX determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector and an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-DAD/ELSD). HPLC-DAD analyses of SFEEX identified β-carotene as the main carotenoid (1.7 mg/g), while HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLU) evidenced α-tocopherol (1.2 mg/g) as the most abundant tocopherol isoform in SFEEX. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS (LC-ESI-MS) analysis of UAMM showed the presence of quercetin-sulfate (15.6%, major component), malvidin 3-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl) glucoside-4-vinylphenol adduct (pigment B) (9.3%), di-caffeoyl coumaroyl spermidine (7.6%), methyl-epigallocatechin (5.68%), and phloretin (4.1%), while flavonoids (70.5%) and phenolic acids (23.9%) emerged as the most abundant polyphenol classes. UAMM exerted a complete inhibition of the cholesterol oxidative degradation at 140 °C from 75 μg of extract, showing 50% protection at 30.6 μg (IA50). Furthermore, UAMM significantly reduced viability (31–48%) in A375 melanoma cells in the range of 500–2000 μg/mL after 96 h of incubation (MTT assay), with a low toxic effect in normal HaCaT keratinocytes. The results of this research extend the knowledge of the nutritional and biological properties of A. melanocarpa berries, providing useful information on specific extracts for potential food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.

Chemical Composition, Nutritional, and Biological Properties of Extracts Obtained with Different Techniques from Aronia melanocarpa Berries

Piras, Alessandra
;
Porcedda, Silvia;Nieddu, Mariella;Piras, Franca;Sogos, Valeria;Rosa, Antonella
2024-01-01

Abstract

This study investigates the chemical composition, nutritional, and biological properties of extracts obtained from A. melanocarpa berries using different extraction methods and solvents. Hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 allowed us to isolate fruit essential oil (HDEX) and fixed oil (SFEEX), respectively. A phenol-enriched extract was obtained using a mild ultrasound-assisted maceration with methanol (UAMM). The HDEX most abundant component, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was italicene epoxide (17.2%), followed by hexadecanoic acid (12.4%), khusinol (10.5%), limonene (9.7%), dodecanoic acid (9.7%), and (E)-anethole (6.1%). Linoleic (348.9 mg/g of extract, 70.5%), oleic (88.9 mg/g, 17.9%), and palmitic (40.8 mg/g, 8.2%) acids, followed by α-linolenic and stearic acids, were the main fatty acids in SFEEX determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector and an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-DAD/ELSD). HPLC-DAD analyses of SFEEX identified β-carotene as the main carotenoid (1.7 mg/g), while HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLU) evidenced α-tocopherol (1.2 mg/g) as the most abundant tocopherol isoform in SFEEX. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS (LC-ESI-MS) analysis of UAMM showed the presence of quercetin-sulfate (15.6%, major component), malvidin 3-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl) glucoside-4-vinylphenol adduct (pigment B) (9.3%), di-caffeoyl coumaroyl spermidine (7.6%), methyl-epigallocatechin (5.68%), and phloretin (4.1%), while flavonoids (70.5%) and phenolic acids (23.9%) emerged as the most abundant polyphenol classes. UAMM exerted a complete inhibition of the cholesterol oxidative degradation at 140 °C from 75 μg of extract, showing 50% protection at 30.6 μg (IA50). Furthermore, UAMM significantly reduced viability (31–48%) in A375 melanoma cells in the range of 500–2000 μg/mL after 96 h of incubation (MTT assay), with a low toxic effect in normal HaCaT keratinocytes. The results of this research extend the knowledge of the nutritional and biological properties of A. melanocarpa berries, providing useful information on specific extracts for potential food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.
2024
Aronia melanocarpa; Natural extracts; Berries; Essential oil; Fixed oil; Phenolic extract
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/400883
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