Background: Metastatic CRC (mCRC) is a molecular heterogeneous disease. The aim of this review is to give an overview of molecular-driven treatment of mCRC patients. Methods: A review of clinical trials, retrospective studies and case reports was performed regarding molecular biomarkers with therapeutic implications. Results: RAS wild-type status was confirmed as being crucial for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies and for rechallenge strategy. Antiangiogenic therapies improve survival in first- and second-line settings, irrespective of RAS status, while tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) remain promising in refractory mCRC. Promising results emerged from anti-HER2 drugs trials in HER2-positive mCRC. Target inhibitors were successful for BRAFV600E mutant mCRC patients, while immunotherapy was successful for microsatellite instability-high/defective mismatch repair (MSI-H/dMMR) or DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit (POLE-1) mutant patients. Data are still lacking on NTRK, RET, MGMT, and TGF-β, which require further research. Conclusion: Several molecular biomarkers have been identified for the tailored treatment of mCRC patients and multiple efforts are currently ongoing to increase the therapeutic options. In the era of precision medicine, molecular-biology-driven treatment is the key to impro patient selection and patient outcomes. Further research and large phase III trials are required to ameliorate the therapeutic management of these patients.

Molecular-biology-driven treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer

Lai E.;Donisi C.;Mariani S.;Pretta A.;Persano M.;Balconi F.;Dubois M.;Migliari M.;Spanu D.;Saba G.;Musio F.;Ziranu P.;Puzzoni M.;Pusceddu V.;Massa E.;Madeddu C.;Scartozzi M.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Background: Metastatic CRC (mCRC) is a molecular heterogeneous disease. The aim of this review is to give an overview of molecular-driven treatment of mCRC patients. Methods: A review of clinical trials, retrospective studies and case reports was performed regarding molecular biomarkers with therapeutic implications. Results: RAS wild-type status was confirmed as being crucial for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies and for rechallenge strategy. Antiangiogenic therapies improve survival in first- and second-line settings, irrespective of RAS status, while tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) remain promising in refractory mCRC. Promising results emerged from anti-HER2 drugs trials in HER2-positive mCRC. Target inhibitors were successful for BRAFV600E mutant mCRC patients, while immunotherapy was successful for microsatellite instability-high/defective mismatch repair (MSI-H/dMMR) or DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit (POLE-1) mutant patients. Data are still lacking on NTRK, RET, MGMT, and TGF-β, which require further research. Conclusion: Several molecular biomarkers have been identified for the tailored treatment of mCRC patients and multiple efforts are currently ongoing to increase the therapeutic options. In the era of precision medicine, molecular-biology-driven treatment is the key to impro patient selection and patient outcomes. Further research and large phase III trials are required to ameliorate the therapeutic management of these patients.
2020
Metastatic colorectal cancer; Molecular biomarkers; Tailored treatment; Therapeutic implications
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
molecularbiologycancers-12-01214-v2.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: versione editoriale
Dimensione 2.28 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.28 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/296884
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 14
  • Scopus 23
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 24
social impact